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Five main challenges for achieving responsible mining in Myanmar were identified from the field research, as well as from extensive review of current laws and initiatives. This included discussion with international and local experts, including those providing advice to the Myanmar government, as well as mining companies. The five challenges are:

1.Policies, laws and regulations relevant to mining activities lack clarity and inhibit responsible investment

2.The capacity of government and business actors to monitor and address environmental, social and human rights impacts of mining is limited

3.The environmental, social and human rights costs of mining are externalised on local communities

4.Governance of mining in conflict-affected areas is highly problematic

5.Extensive informality in the mining sector needs to be addressed